Test Virtual Merchant

23064537

2012
10
15

1537-4521

39
11

2012
Nov

Sexually transmitted diseases
Sex Transm Dis

Emergence of increased azithromycin resistance during unsuccessful treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection with azithromycin (Portland, OR, 2011).

877-9

10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3182685d2b

We describe the emergence of an azithromycin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae variant in a man from Portland, Oregon, during sole treatment with 2 g azithromycin. This report highlights the ease with which gonococcal macrolide resistance can emerge, the threat of multidrug resistant N. gonorrhoeae, and the need for adherence to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention treatment guidelines.

Neisseria Reference Laboratory, Department of Global Health and Center for AIDS and STD, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Soge
Olusegun O
OO

Harger
Doug
D

Schafer
Sean
S

Toevs
Kim
K

Raisler
Kathie A
KA

Venator
Kathy
K

Holmes
King K
KK

Kirkcaldy
Robert D
RD

eng

PS001411-03
PS
NCHHSTP CDC HHS
United States

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.

United States
Sex Transm Dis
7705941
0148-5717

IM

2012
10
16
6
0

2012
10
16
6
0

2012
10
16
6
0

ppublish

10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3182685d2b
00007435-201211000-00009
23064537

22878023

2012
09
28

2012
12
07

1474-4457

12
10

2012
Oct

The Lancet infectious diseases
Lancet Infect Dis

Prevalences of sexually transmitted infections in young adults and female sex workers in Peru: a national population-based survey.

765-73

10.1016/S1473-3099(12)70144-5
S1473-3099(12)70144-5

We assessed prevalences of seven sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Peru, stratified by risk behaviours, to help to define care and prevention priorities.
In a 2002 household-based survey of the general population, we enrolled randomly selected 18-29-year-old residents of 24 cities with populations greater than 50 000 people. We then surveyed female sex workers (FSWs) in these cities. We gathered data for sexual behaviour; vaginal specimens or urine for nucleic acid amplification tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis; and blood for serological tests for syphilis, HIV, and (in subsamples) herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) and human T-lymphotropic virus. This study is a registered component of the PREVEN trial, number ISRCTN43722548.
15 261 individuals from the general population and 4485 FSWs agreed to participate in our survey. Overall prevalence of infection with HSV2, weighted for city size, was 13·5% in men, 13·6% in women, and 60·6% in FSWs (all values in FSWs standardised to age composition of women in the general population). The prevalence of C trachomatis infection was 4·2% in men, 6·5% in women, and 16·4% in FSWs; of T vaginalis infection was 0·3% in men, 4·9% in women, and 7·9% in FSWs; and of syphilis was 0·5% in men, 0·4% in women, and 0·8% in FSWs. N gonorrhoeae infection had a prevalence of 0·1% in men and women, and of 1·6% in FSWs. Prevalence of HIV infection was 0·5% in men and FSWs, and 0·1% in women. Four (0·3%) of 1535 specimens were positive for human T-lymphotropic virus 1. In men, 65·0% of infections with HIV, 71·5% of N gonorrhoeae, and 41·4% of HSV2 and 60·9% of cases of syphilis were in the 13·3% who had sex with men or unprotected sex with FSWs in the past year. In women from the general population, 66·7% of infections with HIV and 16·7% of cases of syphilis were accounted for by the 4·4% who had been paid for sex by any of their past three partners.
Defining of high-risk groups could guide targeting of interventions for communicable diseases-including STIs-in the general Peruvian population.
Wellcome Trust-Burroughs Wellcome Fund Infectious Disease Initiative and US National Institutes of Health.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Epidemiology, STD, and HIV Unit, School of Public Health and Administration, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.

Cárcamo
César P
CP

Campos
Pablo E
PE

García
Patricia J
PJ

Hughes
James P
JP

Garnett
Geoff P
GP

Holmes
King K
KK

Peru PREVEN study team

eng

059131/Z/99/Z
Wellcome Trust
United Kingdom

078835/Z/05/B
Wellcome Trust
United Kingdom

078835/Z/05/Z
Wellcome Trust
United Kingdom

AI31448
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

P30-AI027757
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t

2012
08
08

United States
Lancet Infect Dis
101130150
1473-3099

0
Antibodies, Viral

IM

Lancet Infect Dis. 2012 Oct;12(10):739-40
22878024

Adolescent

Adult

Antibodies, Viral
blood

Chlamydia Infections
epidemiology
urine

Female

Gonorrhea
epidemiology
urine

HIV Infections
blood
epidemiology

HTLV-I Infections
blood
epidemiology

Health Surveys

Herpes Simplex
blood
epidemiology
virology

Herpesvirus 2, Human

Humans

Male

Peru
epidemiology

Prevalence

Prostitution
statistics & numerical data

Questionnaires

Sexual Behavior
statistics & numerical data

Sexually Transmitted Diseases
blood
epidemiology
urine

Syphilis
blood
epidemiology

Trichomonas Vaginitis
epidemiology

Urban Population
statistics & numerical data

Vagina
microbiology
parasitology

Young Adult

PMC3459082

Bernabe-Ortiz
Antonio
A

Buendia
Clara
C

Canchihuaman
Fredy
F

Chiappe
Marina
M

Cotrina
Armando
A

Gomez
Julio
J

La Rosa
Sayda
S

Segura
Patricia
P

Valderrama
Maria
M

Buffardi
Anne L
AL

Jones
James H
JH

Kohler
Pamela
P

Mejia
Carolina
C

Morris
Martina
M

Thomas
Kathy K
KK

Whittington
William L H
WL

Xet-Mull
Ana Maria
AM

Hall
Eric
E

Jones
Franca
F

Jones
James H
JH

White
Peter
P

Quinte
Giovanni
G

Evangelista
Julio
J

Lara
Juan Carlos
JC

Tataje
Jose
J

Lopez-Torres
Lorena
L

Vidarte
Karina
K

2012
8
8

2012
8
11
6
0

2012
8
11
6
0

2012
12
12
6
0

ppublish

S1473-3099(12)70144-5
10.1016/S1473-3099(12)70144-5
22878023
PMC3459082

22697146

2012
06
15

2012
10
11

1448-5028

9
3

2012
Jul

Sexual health
Sex Health

Risk behaviours by type of concurrency among young people in three STI clinics in the United States.

280-7

10.1071/SH11047

Concurrent sexual partnerships can increase sexually transmissible infections (STI) transmission on a population level. However, different concurrency types may be associated with differential risks for transmission. To investigate this, we describe the prevalence and correlates of four specific concurrency types.
Between 2001 and 2004, 1098 young adults attending three STI clinics were interviewed and tested for STIs. Characteristics associated with concurrency types were identified using logistic regression.
Approximately one-third of respondents reported reactive (34%), transitional (36%), compensatory (32%) and experimental (26%) concurrency. Among men, reactive concurrency was associated with not identifying as heterosexual, drug use and having sex the same day as meeting a partner. Among women, reactive concurrency was associated with African-American race and having >3 lifetime partners. Transitional concurrency was associated with >3 lifetime partners for men and women. Among men, compensatory concurrency was associated with African-American race; among women, there were no associations with compensatory concurrency. Among men, experimental concurrency was associated with >3 lifetime partners and having sex the same day as meeting a partner. Among women, experimental concurrency was associated with not identifying as heterosexual, drug use and having sex the same day as meeting a partner.
All concurrency types were common in this population and each was associated with a set of demographic and risk factors. Reactive and experimental concurrency types were associated with other high-risk behaviours, such as drug use.

Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA. khess@ucla.edu

Hess
Kristen L
KL

Gorbach
Pamina M
PM

Manhart
Lisa E
LE

Stoner
Bradley P
BP

Martin
David H
DH

Holmes
King K
KK

eng

AI31448
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Australia
Sex Health
101242667
1448-5028

IM

Adult

Attitude to Health

Ethnic Groups
statistics & numerical data

Female

Humans

Male

Middle Aged

Prevalence

Risk Factors

Risk-Taking

Sentinel Surveillance

Sex Distribution

Sexual Behavior
statistics & numerical data

Sexual Partners

Sexually Transmitted Diseases
epidemiology

Substance-Related Disorders
epidemiology

United States
epidemiology

Unsafe Sex
statistics & numerical data

Young Adult

2011
3
15

2011
9
16

2012
6
16
6
0

2012
6
16
6
0

2012
10
12
6
0

ppublish

SH11047
10.1071/SH11047
22697146

22522237

2012
04
23

2012
06
12

2012
10
09

1944-7884

60
1

2012
May
1

Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.

A comparison of sexual behavior patterns among men who have sex with men and heterosexual men and women.

83-90

10.1097/QAI.0b013e318247925e

Men who have sex with men (MSM) have higher rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections than women and heterosexual men. This elevated risk persists across age groups and reflects biological and behavioral factors; yet, there have been few direct comparisons of sexual behavior patterns between these populations.
We compared sexual behavior patterns of MSM and male and female heterosexuals aged 18-39 using 4 population-based random digit dialing surveys. A 1996-1998 survey in 4 US cities and 2 Seattle surveys (2003 and 2006) provided estimates for MSM; a 2003-2004 Seattle survey provided data about heterosexual men and women.
Sexual debut occurred earlier among MSM than heterosexuals. MSM reported longer cumulative lifetime periods of new partner acquisition than heterosexuals and a more gradual decline in new partnership formation with age. Among MSM, 86% of 18- to 24-year-olds and 72% of 35- to 39-year-olds formed a new partnership during the previous year, compared with 56% of heterosexual men and 34% of women at 18-24 years, and 21% and 10%, respectively, at 35-39 years. MSM were also more likely to choose partners >5 years older and were 2-3 times as likely as heterosexuals to report recent concurrent partnerships. MSM reported more consistent condom use during anal sex than heterosexuals reported during vaginal sex.
MSM have longer periods of partnership acquisition, a higher prevalence of partnership concurrency, and more age disassortative mixing than heterosexuals. These factors likely help to explain higher HIV/sexually transmitted infections rates among MSM, despite higher levels of condom use.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.

Glick
Sara Nelson
SN

Morris
Martina
M

Foxman
Betsy
B

Aral
Sevgi O
SO

Manhart
Lisa E
LE

Holmes
King K
KK

Golden
Matthew R
MR

eng

T32 AI007140-32
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

Comparative Study
Journal Article

United States
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr
100892005
1525-4135

IM
X

Adolescent

Adult

Female

Humans

Male

Risk Factors

Sexual Behavior
statistics & numerical data

Sexually Transmitted Diseases
epidemiology

United States

Young Adult

NIHMS351670 [Available on 05/01/13]
PMC3334840 [Available on 05/01/13]

2012
4
24
6
0

2012
4
24
6
0

2012
6
13
6
0

2013
5
1
0
0

ppublish

10.1097/QAI.0b013e318247925e
00126334-201205010-00013
22522237
PMC3334840
NIHMS351670

22341824

2012
03
26

2012
04
10

2012
04
18

1474-547X

379
9821

2012
Mar
24

Lancet
Lancet

Prevention of sexually transmitted infections in urban communities (Peru PREVEN): a multicomponent community-randomised controlled trial.

1120-8

10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61846-1

Previous community-randomised trials of interventions to control sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have involved rural settings, were rarely multicomponent, and had varying results. We aimed to assess the effect of a multicomponent intervention on curable STIs in urban young adults and female sex workers (FSWs).
In this community-randomised trial, baseline STI screening was done between August, and November, 2002, in random household samples of young adults (aged 18-29 years) and in FSWs in Peruvian cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants. Geographically separate cities were selected, matched into pairs, and randomly allocated to intervention or control groups with an S-PLUS program. Follow-up surveys of random samples were done after 2 years and 3 years. The intervention comprised four modalities: strengthened STI syndromic management by pharmacy workers and clinicians; mobile-team outreach to FSWs for STI screening and pathogen-specific treatment; periodic presumptive treatment of FSWs for trichomoniasis; and condom promotion for FSWs and the general population. Individuals in control cities received standard care. The composite primary endpoint was infection of young adults with Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or Neisseria gonorrhoeae, or syphilis seroreactivity. Laboratory workers and the data analyst were masked, but fieldworkers, the Peruvian study team, and participants in the outcome surveys were not. All analyses were done by intention to treat. This trial is registered, ISRCTN43722548.
We did baseline surveys of 15,261 young adults in 24 Peruvian cities. Of those, 20 geographically separate cities were matched into pairs, in each of which one city was assigned to intervention and the other to standard of care. In the 2006 follow-up survey, data for the composite primary outcome were available for 12,930 young adults. We report a non-significant reduction in prevalence of STIs in young adults, adjusted for baseline prevalence, in intervention cities compared with control cities (relative risk 0·84, 95% CI 0·69-1·02; p=0·096). In subgroup analyses, significant reductions were noted in intervention cities in young adult women and FSWs.
Syndromic management of STIs, mobile-team outreach to FSWs, presumptive treatment for trichomoniasis in FSWs, and condom promotion might reduce the composite prevalence of any of the four curable STIs investigated in this trial.
Wellcome Trust and Burroughs Wellcome Fund, National Institutes of Health, Center for AIDS Research, CIPRA, and USAID-Peru.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Epidemiology, STD/AIDS Unit, School of Public Health and Administration, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.

García
Patricia J
PJ

Holmes
King K
KK

Cárcamo
César P
CP

Garnett
Geoff P
GP

Hughes
James P
JP

Campos
Pablo E
PE

Whittington
William L H
WL

Peru PREVEN Study Team

eng

ISRCTN

ISRCTN43722548

059131/Z/99/Z
Wellcome Trust
United Kingdom

078835/Z/05/B
Wellcome Trust
United Kingdom

078835/Z/05/Z
Wellcome Trust
United Kingdom

AI27757
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

AI31448
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

U19 AI053218
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t
Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, Non-P.H.S.

2012
02
15

England
Lancet
2985213R
0140-6736

AIM
IM

Lancet. 2012 Mar 24;379(9821):1081-2
22341823

Lancet. 2012 Mar 24;379(9821):1102

Adolescent

Adult

Chlamydia Infections
epidemiology
prevention & control

Chlamydia trachomatis

Condoms
utilization

Female

Gonorrhea
epidemiology
prevention & control

Humans

Intention to Treat Analysis

Male

Peru
epidemiology

Prevalence

Sex Workers
statistics & numerical data

Sexually Transmitted Diseases
epidemiology
prevention & control

Trichomonas Infections
epidemiology
prevention & control

Trichomonas vaginalis

Urban Population
statistics & numerical data

Young Adult

PMC3315635

Bernabe-Ortiz
Antonio
A

Buendia
Clara
C

Canchihuaman
Fredy
F

Chiappe
Marina
M

Cotrina
Armando
A

Gomez
Julio
J

La Rosa
Sayda
S

Segura
Patricia
P

Valderrama
Maria
M

Buffardi
Anne
A

Kohler
Pamela
P

Mejia
Carolina
C

Xet-Mull
Ana Maria
AM

Thomas
Kathy K
KK

Hall
Eric
E

Jones
Franca
F

White
Peter
P

Quinte
Giovanni
G

Evangelista
Julio
J

Lara
Juan Carlos
JC

Tataje
Jose
J

Lopez-Torres
Lorena
L

Vidarte
Karina
K

2012
2
15

2012
2
21
6
0

2012
2
22
6
0

2012
4
11
6
0

ppublish

S0140-6736(11)61846-1
10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61846-1
22341824
PMC3315635

22184617

2012
02
23

2012
06
15

1537-6591

54
6

2012
Mar

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Clin. Infect. Dis.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae with high-level resistance to azithromycin: case report of the first isolate identified in the United States.

841-3

10.1093/cid/cir929

We report on the first Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolate in the United States identified with high-level resistance to azithromycin. This report discusses the epidemiologic case investigation, the molecular studies of resistance-associated mutations and N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing, and challenges posed by emerging gonococcal antimicrobial resistance.

Department of Public Health Sciences, John A Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA. katz@hawaii.edu

Katz
Alan R
AR

Komeya
Alan Y
AY

Soge
Olusegun O
OO

Kiaha
Mandy I
MI

Lee
Maria Veneranda C
MV

Wasserman
Glenn M
GM

Maningas
Eloisa V
EV

Whelen
A Christian
AC

Kirkcaldy
Robert D
RD

Shapiro
Steven J
SJ

Bolan
Gail A
GA

Holmes
King K
KK

eng

PS001411-03
PS
NCHHSTP CDC HHS
United States

PS09-90203CONT11
PHS HHS
United States

Case Reports
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.

2011
12
19

United States
Clin Infect Dis
9203213
1058-4838

0
Anti-Bacterial Agents

83905-01-5
Azithromycin

IM

Adult

Anti-Bacterial Agents
pharmacology

Azithromycin
pharmacology

Drug Resistance, Bacterial

Female

Gonorrhea
microbiology

Hawaii

Humans

Male

Microbial Sensitivity Tests

Neisseria gonorrhoeae
drug effects
genetics
immunology

Young Adult

2011
12
19

2011
12
21
6
0

2011
12
21
6
0

2012
6
16
6
0

ppublish

cir929
10.1093/cid/cir929
22184617

21803605

2012
02
14

2012
07
10

1552-6917

23
2

2012 Mar-Apr

The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care : JANAC
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care

An integrated approach for antiretroviral adherence and secondary HIV transmission risk-reduction support by nurses in Kenya.

146-54

10.1016/j.jana.2011.05.001

Ongoing antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and secondary HIV transmission-risk reduction (positive prevention) support are needed in resource-limited settings. We evaluated a nurse-delivered counseling intervention in Kenya. We trained 90 nurses on a brief counseling algorithm that comprised ART and sexual-risk assessment, risk-reduction messages, and health-promotion planning. Self-reported measures were assessed before, immediately after, and 2 months post-training. Consistent ART adherence assessment was reported by 29% of nurses at baseline and 66% at 2 months post-training (p < .001). Assessment of patient sexual behaviors was 25% at baseline and 60% at 2 months post-training (p < .001). Nurse practice behaviors recommended in the counseling algorithm improved significantly at 2 months post-training compared with baseline, odds ratios 4.30-10.50. We found that training nurses in clinical counseling for ART adherence and positive prevention is feasible. Future studies should test impact of nurse counseling on patient outcomes in resource-limited settings.
Copyright © 2012 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Kurth
Ann E
AE

McClelland
Lauren
L

Wanje
George
G

Ghee
Annette E
AE

Peshu
Norbert
N

Mutunga
Esther
E

Jaoko
Walter
W

Storwick
Marta
M

Holmes
King K
KK

McClelland
Scott
S

eng

3 P30 AI027757-18S1
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

2011
07
30

United States
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care
9111870
1055-3290

IM
N
X

Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
nursing

Counseling

Delivery of Health Care, Integrated

Feasibility Studies

Female

HIV Infections
drug therapy
nursing
prevention & control
transmission

Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice

Humans

Inservice Training

Kenya

Male

Medication Adherence

Nursing Staff
education

Pilot Projects

Risk Reduction Behavior

Safe Sex

2010
12
2

2011
5
2

2011
7
30

2011
8
2
6
0

2011
8
2
6
0

2012
7
11
6
0

ppublish

S1055-3290(11)00078-1
10.1016/j.jana.2011.05.001
21803605

23082208

2012
10
19

1932-6203

7
10

2012

PloS one
PLoS ONE

Improved STD syndrome management by a network of clinicians and pharmacy workers in Peru: The PREVEN Network.

e47750

10.1371/journal.pone.0047750

Sexually Transmitted diseases (STD) syndrome management has been one cornerstone of STD treatment. Persons with STD symptoms in many countries, especially those with limited resources, often initially seek care in pharmacies. The objective of the study was to develop and evaluate an integrated network of physicians, midwives and pharmacy workers trained in STD syndromic management (The PREVEN Network) as part of a national urban community-randomized trial of sexually transmitted infection prevention in Peru.
After a comprehensive census of physicians, midwives, and pharmacies in ten intervention and ten control cities, we introduced seminars and workshops for pharmacy workers, and continuing education for physicians and midwives in intervention cities and invited graduates to join the PREVEN Network. "Prevention Salespersons" visited pharmacies, boticas and clinicians regularly for educational support and collection of information on numbers of cases of STD syndromes seen at pharmacies and by clinicians in intervention cities. Simulated patients evaluated outcomes of training of pharmacy workers with respect to adequate STD syndrome management, recommendations for condom use and for treatment of partners. In intervention cities we trained, certified, and incorporated into the PREVEN Network the workers at 623 (80.6%) of 773 pharmacies and 701 (69.6%) of 1007 physicians and midwives in private practice. Extremely high clinician and pharmacy worker turnover, 13.4% and 44% respectively in the first year, dictated continued training of new pharmacy workers and clinicians. By the end of the intervention the Network included 792 pharmacies and 597 clinicians. Pharmacies reported more cases of STDs than did clinicians. Evaluations by simulated patients showed significant and substantial improvements in the management of STD syndromes at pharmacies in intervention cities but not in control cities.
Training pharmacy workers linked to a referral network of clinicians proved feasible and acceptable. High turn-over was challenging but over come.

Epidemiology, STI/AIDS Unit, School of Public Health, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru. patricia.garcia@upch.pe

García
Patricia J
PJ

Carcamo
Cesar P
CP

Garnett
Geoff P
GP

Campos
Pablo E
PE

Holmes
King K
KK

eng

059131/Z/99/Z
Wellcome Trust
United Kingdom

078835/Z/05/B
Wellcome Trust
United Kingdom

078835/Z/05/Z
Wellcome Trust
United Kingdom

AI31448
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

P30-AI27757
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

U19 AI053218
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t

2012
10
17

United States
PLoS One
101285081
1932-6203

IM
PMC3474757

2012
7
26

2012
9
20

2012
10
17

2012
10
20
6
0

2012
10
20
6
0

2012
10
20
6
0

ppublish

10.1371/journal.pone.0047750
PONE-D-12-22301
23082208
PMC3474757

22957034

2012
09
07

1932-6203

7
9

2012

PloS one
PLoS ONE

Text messaging to improve attendance at post-operative clinic visits after adult male circumcision for HIV prevention: a randomized controlled trial.

e43832

10.1371/journal.pone.0043832

Following male circumcision for HIV prevention, a high proportion of men fail to return for their scheduled seven-day post-operative visit. We evaluated the effect of short message service (SMS) text messages on attendance at this important visit.
We enrolled 1200 participants >18 years old in a two-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial at 12 sites in Nyanza province, Kenya. Participants received daily SMS text messages for seven days (n = 600) or usual care (n = 600). The primary outcome was attendance at the scheduled seven-day post-operative visit. The primary analysis was by intention-to-treat.
Of participants receiving SMS, 387/592 (65.4%) returned, compared to 356/596 (59.7%) in the control group (relative risk [RR] = 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.20; p = 0.04). Men who paid more than US$1.25 to travel to clinic were at higher risk for failure to return compared to those who spent ≤ US$1.25 (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 1.35, 95% CI 1.15-1.58; p<0.001). Men with secondary or higher education had a lower risk of failure to return compared to those with primary or less education (aRR 0.87, 95% CI 0.74-1.01; p = 0.07).
Text messaging resulted in a modest improvement in attendance at the 7-day post-operative clinic visit following adult male circumcision. Factors associated with failure to return were mainly structural, and included transportation costs and low educational level.
ClinicalTrials.govNCT01186575.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

Odeny
Thomas A
TA

Bailey
Robert C
RC

Bukusi
Elizabeth A
EA

Simoni
Jane M
JM

Tapia
Kenneth A
KA

Yuhas
Krista
K

Holmes
King K
KK

McClelland
R Scott
RS

eng

ClinicalTrials.gov

NCT01186575

NIH 5D43-TW000007
TW
FIC NIH HHS
United States

P30 AI027757
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t

2012
09
05

United States
PLoS One
101285081
1932-6203

IM

Pediatrics. 1998 Jun;101(6):E6
9606248

Vaccine. 2011 Mar 21;29(14):2537-41
21300094

PLoS Med. 2005 Nov;2(11):e298
16231970

Aust Health Rev. 2006 Aug;30(3):389-96
16879098

Lancet. 2007 Feb 24;369(9562):643-56
17321310

Lancet. 2007 Feb 24;369(9562):657-66
17321311

Br J Gen Pract. 2009 Dec;59(569):916-20
19712544

PLoS Med. 2010 Jul;7(7):e1000309
20652013

BMC Fam Pract. 2010;11:79
20973950

Lancet. 2010 Nov 27;376(9755):1838-45
21071074

AIDS. 2011 Mar 27;25(6):825-34
21252632

Telemed J E Health. 2011 Apr;17(3):189-95
21457085

Lancet. 2011 Jul 2;378(9785):49-55
21722952

PLoS One. 2011;6(4):e18299
21483697

Fam Pract. 2006 Dec;23(6):699-705
16916871

Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2009 Jan;10(1):15-8
19254521

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(2):CD003362
19370585

Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Apr 1;159(7):702-6
15033648

PMC3434192

2012
4
21

2012
7
30

2012
9
5

2012
9
8
6
0

2012
9
8
6
0

2012
9
8
6
0

ppublish

10.1371/journal.pone.0043832
PONE-D-12-11992
22957034
PMC3434192

22110142

2011
11
23

2012
01
10

1472-3263

87 Suppl 2

2011
Dec

Sexually transmitted infections
Sex Transm Infect

Global Sexual Health: prioritising the challenges and identifying the solutions. Introduction.

ii1

10.1136/sextrans-2011-050338

Ross
Jonathan D C
JD

Holmes
King K
KK

eng

Introductory Journal Article

England
Sex Transm Infect
9805554
1368-4973

IM

Health Priorities

Humans

Interinstitutional Relations

International Agencies

Sexually Transmitted Diseases
prevention & control

World Health

2011
11
24
6
0

2011
12
14
6
0

2012
1
11
6
0

ppublish

sextrans-2011-050338
10.1136/sextrans-2011-050338
22110142

22256334

2011
09
22

2012
01
18

2013
01
22

1537-4521

38
6

2011
Jun

Sexually transmitted diseases
Sex Transm Dis

Topical penile microbicide use by men to prevent recurrent bacterial vaginosis in sex partners: a randomized clinical trial.

483-9

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) recurs frequently after metronidazole treatment. This randomized, single-masked clinical trial evaluated the efficacy of topical application of 62% ethyl alcohol in emollient gel (gel) to the penis by male partners of women diagnosed with BV for preventing post-treatment BV recurrence.
Among 587 Kenyan women presenting with vulvovaginal symptoms, 236 had BV (vaginal Gram stain Nugent score >=7), of whom 223 (94.3%) agreed, along with their partners, to be randomized: 115 to the intervention and 108 to the control arm. In the intervention arm, male partners agreed to apply gel each morning, and before and after sexual intercourse. All couples received counseling, condoms, and syndromic treatment of sexually transmitted infection symptoms. Follow-up visits were scheduled 1 week, 1 month, and 2 months postenrollment, with vaginal Gram stains at every visit and culture for H2O2-producing lactobacilli at the 2-month visit. The primary outcome was time to diagnosis of BV during follow-up.
In the primary intent-to-treat analysis, diagnosis of BV was significantly more frequent in the intervention arm (hazard ratio: 1.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.01–2.04). After adjustment for baseline covariates, the hazard ratio was 1.39 (95% confidence interval: 0.98–1.99). At the 2-month visit, prevalences of any vaginal lactobacilli or of H2O2-producing lactobacilli did not differ appreciably in the 2 study arms (P = 0.81 and 0.32, respectively).
Daily use of the 62% ethyl alcohol gel by men before and after sex significantly increased persistence or early recurrence of BV in their partners through 2 months after metronidazole treatment. However, no difference was observed in prevalences of vaginal lactobacilli within this same period.

Center for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

Bukusi
Elizabeth
E

Thomas
Katherine K
KK

Nguti
Rosemary
R

Cohen
Craig R
CR

Weiss
Noel
N

Coombs
Robert W
RW

Holmes
King K
KK

eng

HD 40540-04
HD
NICHD NIH HHS
United States

P30-AI-27757
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

R03 TW05820
TW
FIC NIH HHS
United States

T22TW00001
TW
FIC NIH HHS
United States

U19 AI031448-18
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

United States
Sex Transm Dis
7705941
0148-5717

0
Anti-Infective Agents, Local

0
Gels

64-17-5
Ethanol

IM

Administration, Topical

Adult

Anti-Infective Agents, Local
administration & dosage

Ethanol
administration & dosage

Female

Gels
administration & dosage

Humans

Kenya

Male

Penis

Recurrence

Sexual Partners

Treatment Outcome

Vaginosis, Bacterial
prevention & control

Young Adult

NIHMS280053
PMC3548328

2012
1
19
6
0

2012
1
19
6
0

2012
1
19
6
1

ppublish

22256334
PMC3548328
NIHMS280053

21573054

2011
05
16

2011
10
24

1932-6203

6
5

2011

PloS one
PLoS ONE

An interactive internet-based continuing education course on sexually transmitted diseases for physicians and midwives in Peru.

e19318

10.1371/journal.pone.0019318

Clinicians in developing countries have had limited access to continuing education (CE) outside major cities, and CE strategies have had limited impact on sustainable change in performance. New educational tools could improve CE accessibility and effectiveness.
The objective of this study was to evaluate an interactive Internet-based CE course on Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) management for clinicians in Peru. Participants included physicians and midwives in private practice drawn from a census of 10 Peruvian cities. The CE included a three-hour workshop for improving Internet skills, followed by a 22-hour online course on STD-syndrome-management, with subsequent educational support. The course used case-based clinical vignettes tailored to local STD problems. Knowledge and reported practices on STD management were assessed before, immediately after and at four months after completion of the course. Statistical analysis included parametric tests-linear regression multivariate analysis, paired t-test and repeated measures ANOVA using SPSS 14.0. Of 1,071 eligible clinicians, 510 agreed to participate, as did an additional 132 public sector clinicians. Of these 642 participants, 619 (96.4%) completed the course, and 596 (96.3%) took the four-month follow-up evaluation. Physician and midwife scores improved from 64.2% correct answers on the pre-test to 77.9% correct on the four-month follow-up test (p<0.001). Most participants (95%) found the online course useful for their work needs. Self reported STD management practices did not change.
Among physicians and midwives in Peru, an Internet-based CE course was feasible, acceptable with high participation rates, and led to sustained improvement in knowledge at four months. Further studies are needed to test it as a model for improving the training of physicians, midwives, and other health care providers.

School of Public Health and Administration, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.

Canchihuaman
Fredy A
FA

Garcia
Patricia J
PJ

Gloyd
Stephen S
SS

Holmes
King K
KK

eng

059131/Z/99/Z
Wellcome Trust
United Kingdom

078835/Z/05/B
Wellcome Trust
United Kingdom

078835/Z/05/Z
Wellcome Trust
United Kingdom

AI31448
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

D43-TW00007
TW
FIC NIH HHS
United States

P30-AI27757
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

U2-RTW007368
PHS HHS
United States

U2-RTW007374
PHS HHS
United States

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t

2011
05
09

United States
PLoS One
101285081
1932-6203

IM

BMJ. 2003 Apr 19;326(7394):870-3
12702625

Med Teach. 2002 Jul;24(4):422-4
12193328

J Med Internet Res. 2003 Jul-Sep;5(3):e20
14517111

JAMA. 2003 Oct 1;290(13):1700-1
14519694

JAMA. 1992 Sep 2;268(9):1111-7
1501333

Lancet. 2004 Jul 17-23;364(9430):295-300
15262109

Int J Epidemiol. 2005 Feb;34(1):215-20
15333621

Ann Intern Med. 2004 Nov 16;141(10):771-80
15545677

Bull World Health Organ. 2004 Nov;82(11):867-74
15640923

Fam Med. 2005 Feb;37(2):131-8
15690254

Am J Prev Med. 2005 Apr;28(3):285-90
15766617

Med Educ. 2005 Jun;39(6):561-7
15910431

J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2006 Jan-Feb;13(1):16-23
16221933

J Med Internet Res. 2005;7(4):e48
16236700

J Am Board Fam Pract. 2005 Nov-Dec;18(6):541-5
16322416

Clin Med. 2007 Jan-Feb;7(1):37-42
17348573

Teach Learn Med. 2007 Summer;19(3):230-8
17594217

Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2008 Oct;24(4):271-5
19133176

Med Educ. 2010 Aug;44(8):765-74
20633216

Sex Transm Infect. 2003 Oct;79(5):403-7
14573837

Acad Emerg Med. 2004 Feb;11(2):143-8
14759955

J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2004 Spring;24(2):68-75
15279131

J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2005 Winter;25(1):43-51
16078802

JAMA. 2005 Sep 7;294(9):1043-51
16145024

BMC Med Educ. 2006;6:10
16504041

Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2006 Oct;20(4):223-9
17316480

AIDS. 2007 Dec;21 Suppl 8:S137-42
18172382

JAMA. 2008 Sep 10;300(10):1181-96
18780847

Ann Surg. 2009 May;249(5):744-9
19387336

Med Teach. 2009 Sep;31(9):e431-7
19811180

BMC Med Educ. 2010;10:10
20113493

BMC Med Educ. 2010;10:42
20537144

Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001 Aug;108(2):460-5
11496192

Bull World Health Organ. 2001;79(9):850-5
11584733

J Med Internet Res. 2003 Jan-Mar;5(1):e4
12746209

Adult

Education, Medical, Continuing
methods

Female

Humans

Internet

Male

Middle Aged

Midwifery

Peru

Physicians

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

PMC3090386

2010
4
9

2011
3
31

2011
5
9

2011
5
17
6
0

2011
5
17
6
0

2011
10
25
6
0

epublish

10.1371/journal.pone.0019318
10-PONE-RA-17795
21573054
PMC3090386

21931828

2011
09
20

2012
02
28

2012
04
26

1932-6203

6
9

2011

PloS one
PLoS ONE

HBV infection in relation to consistent condom use: a population-based study in Peru.

e24721

10.1371/journal.pone.0024721

Data on hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence are limited in developing countries. There is also limited information of consistent condom use efficacy for reducing HBV transmission at the population level. The study goal was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with HBV infection in Peru, and the relationship between anti-HBc positivity and consistent condom use.
Data from two different surveys performed in 28 mid-sized Peruvian cities were analyzed. Participants aged 18-29 years were selected using a multistage cluster sampling. Information was collected through a validated two-part questionnaire. The first part (face-to-face) concerned demographic data, while the second part (self-administered using handheld computers) concerned sexual behavior. Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) was tested in 7,000 blood samples. Prevalences and associations were adjusted for sample strata, primary sampling units and population weights. Anti-HBc prevalence was 5.0% (95%CI 4.1%-5.9%), with the highest prevalence among jungle cities: 16.3% (95%CI 13.8%-19.1%). In the multivariable analysis, Anti-HBc positivity was directly associated with geographic region (highlands OR = 2.05; 95%CI 1.28-3.27, and jungle OR = 4.86; 95%CI 3.05-7.74; compared to coastal region); and inversely associated with age at sexual debut (OR = 0.90; 95%CI 0.85-0.97). Consistent condom use, evaluated in about 40% of participants, was associated with reduced prevalence (OR = 0.34; 95%CI 0.15-0.79) after adjusting for gender, geographic region, education level, lifetime number of sex partners, age at sexual debut and year of survey.
Residence in highlands or jungle cities is associated with higher anti-HBc prevalences, whereas increasing age at sexual debut were associated with lower prevalences. Consistent condom use was associated with decreased risk of anti-HBc. Findings from this study emphasize the need of primary prevention programs (vaccination) especially in the jungle population, and imply that condom use promotion might be a potential strategy to prevent HBV infection.

School of Public Health and Administration, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru. antonio.bernabe@upch.pe

Bernabe-Ortiz
Antonio
A

Carcamo
Cesar P
CP

Scott
John D
JD

Hughes
James P
JP

Garcia
Patricia J
PJ

Holmes
King K
KK

eng

059131/Z/99/A
Wellcome Trust
United Kingdom

5U19AI053218
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

AI 27757
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

D43-TW00007
TW
FIC NIH HHS
United States

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t

2011
09
13

United States
PLoS One
101285081
1932-6203

0
Hepatitis B Antibodies

IM

Hepatology. 1999 Apr;29(4):1306-10
10094979

AIDS. 1995 Jul;9 Suppl 1:S21-30
8561997

Bull Pan Am Health Organ. 1975;9(2):142-7
1156712

Sex Transm Infect. 2002 Aug;78(4):235-40
12181458

Ann Intern Med. 2005 Nov 15;143(10):707-13
16287791

N Engl J Med. 2006 Jun 22;354(25):2645-54
16790697

Sex Transm Infect. 2008 Oct;84(5):386-9
18653568

N Engl J Med. 2008 Oct 2;359(14):1486-500
18832247

Sex Transm Infect. 1998 Apr;74(2):110-5
9634322

Sex Transm Dis. 1998 Feb;25(2):82-9
9518383

JAMA. 2003 Mar 12;289(10):1265-73
12633188

Sex Transm Dis. 2003 Apr;30(4):273-9
12671544

Sex Transm Dis. 2003 May;30(5):425-32
12916134

Bull World Health Organ. 2004 Jun;82(6):454-61
15356939

Bull World Health Organ. 2004 Jul;82(7):483-92
15508193

BMJ. 2004 Nov 6;329(7474):1080-6
15528620

J Clin Gastroenterol. 2004 Nov-Dec;38(10 Suppl 3):S158-68
15602165

Genitourin Med. 1992 Apr;68(2):123-9
1582656

Indian J Med Res. 2005 May;121(5):670-5
15937371

Sex Transm Dis. 2006 Jan;33(1):36-51
16385221

Sex Transm Dis. 2006 Feb;33(2):118-23
16432484

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Feb;74(2):233-8
16474076

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Aug 1;42(4):501-5
16773026

Rev Gastroenterol Peru. 2006 Jul-Sep;26(3):242-58
17053820

Sex Transm Infect. 2006 Dec;82 Suppl 4:iv35-9
17151052

MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006 Dec 8;55(RR-16):1-33; quiz CE1-4
17159833

Int J Epidemiol. 2008 Aug;37(4):862-9
18653515

CMAJ. 2009 Feb 3;180(3):298-304
19188628

Rev Gastroenterol Peru. 1990;10(3):96-101
2129898

Am J Epidemiol. 1978 Aug;108(2):136-44
707474

Fam Plann Perspect. 1999 Nov-Dec;31(6):272-9
10614517

Adolescent

Adult

Condoms
utilization

Female

Hepatitis B
blood
epidemiology
immunology

Hepatitis B Antibodies
blood
immunology

Humans

Male

Peru
epidemiology

Prevalence

Young Adult

PMC3172281

2010
9
23

2011
8
18

2011
9
13

2011
9
21
6
0

2011
9
21
6
0

2012
3
1
6
0

ppublish

10.1371/journal.pone.0024721
09-PONE-RA-12010
21931828
PMC3172281

21160459

2010
12
16

2011
01
03

2011
08
09

1545-8601

59
RR-12

2010
Dec
17

MMWR. Recommendations and reports : Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control
MMWR Recomm Rep

Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010.

1-110

These guidelines for the treatment of persons who have or are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were updated by CDC after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta on April 18-30, 2009. The information in this report updates the 2006 Guidelines for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (MMWR 2006;55[No. RR-11]). Included in these updated guidelines is new information regarding 1) the expanded diagnostic evaluation for cervicitis and trichomoniasis; 2) new treatment recommendations for bacterial vaginosis and genital warts; 3) the clinical efficacy of azithromycin for chlamydial infections in pregnancy; 4) the role of Mycoplasma genitalium and trichomoniasis in urethritis/cervicitis and treatment-related implications; 5) lymphogranuloma venereum proctocolitis among men who have sex with men; 6) the criteria for spinal fluid examination to evaluate for neurosyphilis; 7) the emergence of azithromycin-resistant Treponema pallidum; 8) the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 9) the sexual transmission of hepatitis C; 10) diagnostic evaluation after sexual assault; and 11) STD prevention approaches.

Division of STD Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. kgw2@cdc.gov

Workowski
Kimberly A
KA

Berman
Stuart
S

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

eng

Journal Article
Practice Guideline

United States
MMWR Recomm Rep
101124922
1057-5987

IM

Ann Emerg Med. 2011 Jul;58(1):67-8
21689567

MMWR Recomm Rep. 2011 Jan 14;60(1):18
Dosage error in article text

Adolescent

Adult

Female

Humans

Male

Mass Screening

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Complications, Infectious
diagnosis
drug therapy
prevention & control

Primary Prevention

Sexuality

Sexually Transmitted Diseases
diagnosis
drug therapy
prevention & control

Workowski
Kimberly A
KA

Bauer
Heidi
H

Bachman
Laura
L

Burstein
Gale
G

Eckert
Linda
L

Geisler
William M
WM

Ghanem
Khalil
K

Golden
Matt
M

Gorgos
Linda
L

Hammerschlag
Margaret
M

Hollier
Lisa
L

Leone
Peter
P

Marrazzo
Jeanne
J

Mayer
Kenneth Hugh
KH

Nyirjesy
Paul
P

Rompalo
Anne
A

Sanchez
Pablo
P

Stoner
Bradley
B

Wald
Anna
A

Wendel
George
G

Wiesenfeld
Harold C
HC

Cates
Willard
W
Jr

Holmes
King K
KK

Martin
David
D

Handsfield
Hunter
H

McCormack
William
W

Geisler
William M
WM

Adkinson
N Franklin
NF

Andrews
William
W

Augenbraun
Michael
M

Batteiger
Bryon
B

Bolan
Gail
G

Coles
Bruce
B

Deal
Carolyn
C

Fortenberry
J Dennis
JD

Hook
Edward
E
3rd

Schwebke
Jane R
JR

Schulte
Joann
J

Soper
David
D

Stanberry
Lawrence
L

Trigg
Bruce
B

Wimberly
Yolanda
Y

Zenilman
Jonathan M
JM

Aaron
Kaytura
K

Bachman
Laura
L

Barclay
Lynn
L

Blythe
Margaret J
MJ

Deal
Carolyn D
CD

Dimitrakov
Jordon
J

FitzGerald
Mark
M

Fortenberry
Dennis
D

Hook
Edward W
EW
3rd

Jack
Noreen
N

Kerndt
Peter
P

Marrazzo
Jeanne
J

Ndowa
Francis J
FJ

Parkinson
Michael
M

Piepert
Jeffrey
J

Reams
Patricia
P

Salhi
Bisan
B

Shea
Karen
K

Soper
David
D

Stoner
Bradley
B

Swann
Amy
A

Tan
Litjen
L

Wong
Tom
T

Workowski
Kimberly A
KA

Voigt
Richard
R

Datta
Deblina
D

Dunne
Eileen
E

Hogben
Matthew
M

Holmberg
Scott
S

Koumans
Emily
E

Newman
Lori
L

Aral
Sevgi O
SO

Ballard
Ronald
R

Branson
Bernard
B

Brooks
John
J

Douglas
John
J

Friedman
Alison
A

Hu
Dale
D

Kilmarx
Peter
P

Papp
John
J

Spradling
Phil
P

Kelley
Brenda
B

Barner
Valerie
V

McElroy
Deborah
D

2010
12
17
6
0

2010
12
17
6
0

2011
1
5
6
0

ppublish

rr5912a1
21160459

21098055

2010
11
24

2011
02
22

1472-3263

86 Suppl 3

2010
Dec

Sexually transmitted infections
Sex Transm Infect

Non-monogamy and risk of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis among young adults and their cohabiting partners in Peru.

iii37-44

10.1136/sti.2010.045310

To determine how patterns of non-monogamy influence prevalences of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in individuals and their cohabitating sex partners. METHODS A 2002 survey in 24 Peruvian cities enrolled men and women aged 18-29&emsp14;years from random household samples. The cohabiting sex partner of each enrolee was also enrolled until approximately 100 couples per city were recruited. Men provided urine and women vaginal swabs or urine for molecular testing for Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis; both genders provided blood for serological testing.
Among 2099 females and 2052 males providing specimens and behavioural data, 18.2% of males and 2.5% of females reported non-monogamy during the past year. C trachomatis was detected in 121 females (5.8%) and 80 males (4.1%) and T vaginalis in 87 females (4.2%) and 26 males (1.3%). Multivariate analyses showed that C trachomatis infection in females was significantly associated with her male partner’s non-monogamy (OR 2.02, CI 1.32 to 3.08) but not significantly with her own non-monogamy; T vaginalis was associated with her own non-monogamy (OR 3.11, CI 1.25 to 7.73) and with her partner’s non-monogamy (OR 2.07, CI 1.26 to 3.42). For males, both C trachomatis (OR 2.17, CI 1.29 to 3.69) and T vaginalis (OR 2.49, CI 1.06 to 5.87) were significantly associated only with his own non-monogamy.
Among cohabiting couples, male non-monogamy was common and was associated with C trachomatis and T vaginalis infection in himself and in his female partner, whereas female non-monogamy was reported infrequently and was significantly associated only with her own T vaginalis infection. Patterns of non-monogamy may guide public health interventions.

Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.

Canchihuaman
Fredy A
FA

Carcamo
Cesar P
CP

Garcia
Patricia J
PJ

Aral
Sevgi O
SO

Whittington
William L H
WL

Hawes
Stephen E
SE

Hughes
James P
JP

Holmes
King K
KK

eng

059131/Z/99/Z
Wellcome Trust
United Kingdom

078835/Z/05/B
Wellcome Trust
United Kingdom

078835/Z/05/Z
Wellcome Trust
United Kingdom

AI31448
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

D43-TW007368
TW
FIC NIH HHS
United States

P30-AI27757
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t

England
Sex Transm Infect
9805554
1368-4973

IM

Adolescent

Adult

Chlamydia Infections
epidemiology
transmission

Chlamydia trachomatis

Female

Humans

Male

Multivariate Analysis

Peru
epidemiology

Prevalence

Sexual Partners

Trichomonas Vaginitis
epidemiology
transmission

Trichomonas vaginalis

Unsafe Sex

Young Adult

2010
11
25
6
0

2010
12
1
6
0

2011
2
23
6
0

ppublish

86/Suppl_3/iii37
10.1136/sti.2010.045310
21098055

20601929

2010
09
22

2011
02
11

2011
03
28

1537-4521

37
10

2010
Oct

Sexually transmitted diseases
Sex Transm Dis

Expedited partner therapy: a robust intervention.

602-7

10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181e1a296

Expedited partner therapy (EPT) has been shown to reduce the risk of persistent or recurrent gonorrhea and chlamydial infection in heterosexuals, and to increase the proportion of sex partners receiving treatment. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the consistency of EPT’s effect across sociodemographic and behavioral subgroups.
Subset analyses from a randomized controlled trial compared EPT to standard partner referral (SPR) in sociodemographic and behaviorally defined subgroups. Outcomes included persistent or recurrent infection in study participants and participants’ report that their partners received treatment.
Reinfection risk was lower among EPT recipients than nonrecipients in 21 of 22 subgroups, with relative risks (RRs) varying from 0.4 to 0.94. Compared to persons receiving SPR, persons receiving EPT were more likely to report that their partners were very likely to have been treated in 33 of 34 subgroups (RRs range, 1.03-1.36). Although EPT reduced the risk of persistent or recurrent infection somewhat more in men (RR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.3-1.08) than in women (RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.61-1.07) and more in persons with gonorrhea (RR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.13-0.78) than those with chlamydial infection (RR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.63-1.07), the RR of partners being treated associated with EPT was similar in men (RR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.05-1.39) and women (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.10-1.27), and also in persons with gonorrhea (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.80-2.23) and chlamydial infection (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.07-1.66).
In this study, EPT is shown to be superior to SPR across a wide spectrum of sociodemographic and behaviorally defined subgroups.

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College Cork, Ireland. f.shiely@ucc.ie

Shiely
Frances
F

Hayes
Kevin
K

Thomas
Katherine K
KK

Kerani
Roxanne P
RP

Hughes
James P
JP

Whittington
William L H
WL

Holmes
King K
KK

Handsfield
H Hunter
HH

Hogben
Matthew
M

Golden
Matthew R
MR

eng

AI31448
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

K23 AI01846
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.

United States
Sex Transm Dis
7705941
0148-5717

0
Anti-Bacterial Agents

IM

Adult

Anti-Bacterial Agents
administration & dosage

Chlamydia Infections
drug therapy
prevention & control

Female

Follow-Up Studies

Gonorrhea
drug therapy
prevention & control

Heterosexuality

Humans

Intervention Studies

Male

Recurrence
prevention & control

Risk Factors

Sexual Partners

Treatment Outcome

United States
epidemiology

2010
7
6
6
0

2010
7
6
6
0

2011
2
12
6
0

ppublish

10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181e1a296
20601929

20660592

2010
07
27

2010
11
01

2012
05
23

1472-3263

86
4

2010
Aug

Sexually transmitted infections
Sex Transm Infect

Studying complex interactions among determinants of healthcare-seeking behaviours: self-medication for sexually transmitted infection symptoms in female sex workers.

285-91

10.1136/sti.2009.036806

To describe the frequency and determinants of self-medication for symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a female sex worker (FSW) population. To present a methodology exploring the best predictors as well as the interactions between determinants of self-medication.
A cross-sectional survey of 4153 FSW carried out in Peru. The prevalence of self-medication was estimated from the subsample of participants who had experienced symptoms of STI in the past 12 months (n=1601), and used successive logistic regression models to explore the determinants.
Self-medication prevalence for a reported symptomatic episode during the past 12 months was 32.1% (95% CI 29.8 to 34.6). It was negatively correlated with work in brothels (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.51, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.93; p=0.028) and awareness of STI services available for FSW (adjusted OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.81; p=0.006). Other determinants were organised at different levels of proximity to the outcome creating pathways leading to self-medication.
The importance of the staggered analysis presented in this study resides in its potential to improve the understanding of associations between determinants and, consequently, the targeting of interventions. The awareness of STI services available for FSW increases access to health care, which in turn decreases self-medication. In addition, the sharing of information that takes place between brothel-based FSW was also related to a diminishing prevalence of self-medication. These two main predictors provide an opportunity for prevention programmes, in particular those designed to be led by peers.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, UK. g.gomez@imperial.ac.uk

Gomez
Gabriela B
GB

Campos
Pablo E
PE

Buendia
Clara
C

Carcamo
Cesar P
CP

Garcia
Patricia J
PJ

Segura
Patricia
P

Whittington
William L
WL

Hughes
James P
JP

Ward
Helen
H

Garnett
Geoffrey P
GP

Holmes
King K
KK

eng

AI-031448
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

AI-053218
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

GR-078835
Wellcome Trust
United Kingdom

P30 AI027757
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

Medical Research Council
United Kingdom

Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t

England
Sex Transm Infect
9805554
1368-4973

IM

Adolescent

Adult

Cross-Sectional Studies

Female

Humans

Patient Acceptance of Health Care
statistics & numerical data

Peru

Prostitution
statistics & numerical data

Self Medication
statistics & numerical data

Sexual Partners

Sexually Transmitted Diseases
therapy

Socioeconomic Factors

Young Adult

2010
7
28
6
0

2010
7
28
6
0

2010
11
3
6
0

ppublish

86/4/285
10.1136/sti.2009.036806
20660592

20595501

2010
07
02

2010
08
10

2011
08
01

1476-1645

83
1

2010
Jul

The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.

Hepatitis B infection and association with other sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men in Peru.

194-200

10.4269/ajtmh.2010.10-0003

To assess the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru, we evaluated the prevalence and associated risk factors for HBV serologic markers among participants of a HIV sentinel surveillance conducted in 2002-2003. The standardized prevalences for total antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were 20.2% and 2.8%, respectively. Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection had significantly higher anti-HBc (44.3% versus 19.3%) and HBsAg (9.5% versus 2.3%) prevalences than uninfected men. Increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.06), versatile sexual role (AOR = 1.59), sex in exchange for money/gifts (AOR = 1.58), syphilis (AOR = 1.74), HIV-1 infection (AOR = 1.64), and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, AOR = 2.77) infection were independently associated with anti-HBc positivity, whereas only HIV-1 infection (AOR = 3.51) and generalized lymph node enlargement (AOR = 3.72) were associated with HBsAg positivity. Pre-existing HBV infection is very common among Peruvian MSM and was correlated with sexual risk factors. MSM in Peru constitute a target population for further HBV preventive and treatment interventions.

Asociacion Civil Impacta Salud y Educacion, Lima, Peru. jrlama@impactaperu.org

Lama
Javier R
JR

Agurto
Hellen S
HS

Guanira
Juan V
JV

Ganoza
Carmela
C

Casapia
Martin
M

Ojeda
Nora
N

Ortiz
Abner
A

Zamalloa
Victoria
V

Suarez-Ognio
Luis
L

Cabezas
Cesar
C

Sanchez
Jose L
JL

Sanchez
Jorge
J

Peruvian HIV Sentinel Surveillance Working Group

eng

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t

United States
Am J Trop Med Hyg
0370507
0002-9637

AIM
IM

Acta Derm Venereol. 2000 Mar-Apr;80(2):136-9
10877137

New Microbiol. 1997 Oct;20(4):333-8
9385603

Rev Gastroenterol Peru. 2002 Oct-Dec;22(4):310-23
12525847

Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2003 May;13(5):311-9
12831435

Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2005 Feb;18(1):67-72
15647702

Int J STD AIDS. 2005 Sep;16(9):633-5
16176633

Sex Transm Dis. 2006 May;33(5):307-13
16540880

J Infect Dis. 2006 Nov 15;194(10):1459-66
17054077

Sex Transm Infect. 2007 Aug;83(5):397-9
17556503

Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Sep;34(9):663-8
17847164

Hepatol Res. 2008 Mar;38(3):310-4
17877726

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18155314

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2246951

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2968064

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9071279

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9108941

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14999325

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Sex Transm Infect. 2002 Oct;78(5):374-7
12407244

Hepatitis B
complications
transmission

Homosexuality, Male
ethnology
psychology

Humans

Intervention Studies

Male

Odds Ratio

Peru

Prevalence

Risk Factors

Sexual Behavior
ethnology

Sexually Transmitted Diseases
complications
virology

Unsafe Sex

PMC2912599

Suarez
Luis
L

Pun
Monica
M

Cabezas
Cesar
C

Caballero
Patricia
P

Sanchez
Jorge
J

Lama
Javier R
JR

Guanira
Juan
J

Campos
Pablo
P

Lucchetti
Aldo
A

Goicochea
Pedro
P

Vergara
Jorge
J

Casapia
Martin
M

Hinojosa
Juan Carlos
JC

Zamalloa
Victoria
V

Ortiz
Abner
A

Ojeda
Nora
N

Tataje
Anabeli
A

Garcia
Patricia
P

Carcamo
Cesar
C

Celum
Connie L
CL

Holmes
King K
KK

Zunt
Joseph
J

Whittington
William
W

Hughes
James P
JP

Sanchez
Jose L
JL

Montano
Silvia
S

Laguna-Torres
V Alberto
VA

Kochel
Tadeusz
T

2010
7
3
6
0

2010
7
3
6
0

2010
8
11
6
0

ppublish

83/1/194
10.4269/ajtmh.2010.10-0003
20595501
PMC2912599

20595317

2010
07
02

2010
10
21

2012
06
20

1527-974X

17
4

2010 Jul-Aug

Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA
J Am Med Inform Assoc

Ten years of international collaboration in biomedical informatics and beyond: the AMAUTA program in Peru.

477-80

10.1136/jamia.2009.002196

Well-trained people are urgently needed to tackle global health challenges through information and communication technologies. In this report, AMAUTA, a joint international collaborative training program between the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia and the University of Washington, which has been training Peruvian health professionals in biomedical and health informatics since 1999, is described. Four short-term courses have been organized in Lima, offering training to more than 200 graduate-level students. Long-term training to masters or doctorate level has been undertaken by eight students at the University of Washington. A combination of short-term and long-term strategies was found to be effective for enhancing institutional research and training enterprise. The AMAUTA program promoted the development and institution of informatics research and training capacity in Peru, and has resulted in a group of trained people playing important roles at universities, non-government offices, and the Ministry of Health in Peru. At present, the hub is being extended into Latin American countries, promoting South-to-South collaborations.

Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru. wcurioso@uw.edu

Curioso
Walter H
WH

Fuller
Sherrilynne
S

Garcia
Patricia J
PJ

Holmes
King K
KK

Kimball
Ann Marie
AM

eng

1R01TW007896
TW
FIC NIH HHS
United States

5D43TW007551
TW
FIC NIH HHS
United States

D43TW008438-0109
TW
FIC NIH HHS
United States

P30 AI027757
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

R01 TW007896-01
TW
FIC NIH HHS
United States

R01 TW007896-02
TW
FIC NIH HHS
United States

R01 TW007896-03
TW
FIC NIH HHS
United States

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t

United States
J Am Med Inform Assoc
9430800
1067-5027

IM

Stud Health Technol Inform. 2001;84(Pt 2):1033-7
11604888

Int J Med Inform. 1998 Jun;50(1-3):179-85
9726510

Methods Inf Med. 2005;44(1):25-31
15778791

AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2005;:176-80
16779025

PLoS Med. 2007 Feb;4(2):e11
17326701

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2007;7:24
17850656

Sex Transm Infect. 2007 Dec;83(7):567-70
17932128

BMC Med Educ. 2008;8:1
18194533

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2008;8:11
18366687

AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2007;:921
18694021

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2(8):e274
18852845

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Jun;103(6):638-40
19036392

Int J Med Inform. 2009 Nov;78(11):711-20
19157968

Health Info Libr J. 2009 Sep;26(3):246-51
19712217

Hum Resour Health. 2009;7:80
19860918

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2009;9:50
20003281

Health Aff (Millwood). 2010 Feb;29(2):264-7
20348071

Health Aff (Millwood). 2010 Feb;29(2):274-7
20348073

AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2009;2009:129-33
21633523

Int J Med Inform. 2004 Mar 18;73(2):111-6
15063369

Computational Biology
education

Education, Graduate
organization & administration

Health Personnel
education

Humans

International Cooperation

Leadership

Medical Informatics
education

Organizational Case Studies

Peru

Program Development

Staff Development
organization & administration

Washington

PMC2995648

2010
7
3
6
0

2010
7
3
6
0

2010
10
22
6
0

ppublish

17/4/477
10.1136/jamia.2009.002196
20595317
PMC2995648

20071193

2010
03
15

2010
05
03

2011
09
26

1873-2585

20
4

2010
Apr

Annals of epidemiology
Ann Epidemiol

Age- and gender-specific estimates of partnership formation and dissolution rates in the Seattle sex survey.

308-17

10.1016/j.annepidem.2009.11.003

Partnership formation and dissolution rates are primary determinants of sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission dynamics.
The authors used data on persons’ lifetime sexual experiences from a 2003-2004 random digit dialing survey of Seattle residents aged 18-39 years (N=1,194) to estimate age- and gender-specific partnership formation and dissolution rates. Partnership start and end dates were used to estimate participants’ ages at the start of each partnership and partnership durations, and partnerships not enumerated in the survey were imputed.
Partnership formation peaked at age 19 at 0.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76-1.04) partnerships per year and decreased to 0.1 to 0.2 after age 30 for women and peaked at age 20 at 1.4 (95% CI: 1.08-1.64) and declined to 0.5 after age 30 for men. Nearly one fourth (23.7%) of partnerships ended within 1 week and more than one half (51.2%) ended within 12 weeks. Most (63.5%) individuals 30 to 39 years of age had not formed a new sexual partnership in the past 3 years.
A large proportion of the heterosexual population is no longer at substantial STI risk by their early 30s, but similar analyses among high-risk populations may give insight into reasons for the profound disparities in STI rates across populations.
Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Center for AIDS and STD, Harborview Medical Center, 325 9thAve., Seattle, WA 98104, USA. sjnelson@u.washington.edu

Nelson
Sara J
SJ

Hughes
James P
JP

Foxman
Betsy
B

Aral
Sevgi O
SO

Holmes
King K
KK

White
Peter J
PJ

Golden
Matthew R
MR

eng

R01 AI 068107-01
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

R01 AI068107-05
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

T32 AI 007140
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

T32 AI007140-32
AI
NIAID NIH HHS
United States

Medical Research Council
United Kingdom

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t

2010
01
13

United States
Ann Epidemiol
9100013
1047-2797

IM

Br Med Bull. 2002;62:187-99
12176860

Sex Transm Dis. 2006 Apr;33(4):209-14
16434884

Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Mar;34(3):123-31
17325600

Nature. 1988 Jun 9;333(6173):514-9
3374601

Am J Epidemiol. 1997 Apr 1;145(7):636-43
9098181

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1999 Apr 29;354(1384):787-97
10365404

Sex Transm Dis. 2005 Nov;32(11):710-7
16254547

Sex Transm Dis. 2006 May;33(5):277-83
16641820

Am J Epidemiol. 1996 Aug 1;144(3):306-17
8686700

Am J Epidemiol. 2001 Jan 1;153(1):90-101
11159151

AIDS. 1996 Sep;10(11):1265-71
8883589

Sex Transm Dis. 2000 Nov;27(10):636-43
11099079

Adolescent

Adult

Age Distribution

Female

Health Surveys

Humans

Male

Marriage
statistics & numerical data

Questionnaires

Random Allocation

Risk Factors

Risk-Taking

Sex Factors

Sexual Behavior
statistics & numerical data

Sexual Partners
psychology

Sexually Transmitted Diseases
epidemiology
prevention & control
transmission

Single Person
statistics & numerical data

Washington
epidemiology

Young Adult

NIHMS163357
PMC2838999

2009
5
29

2009
11
24

2009
11
25

2010
1
13

2010
1
15
6
0

2010
1
15
6
0

2010
5
4
6
0

ppublish

S1047-2797(09)00359-7
10.1016/j.annepidem.2009.11.003
20071193
PMC2838999
NIHMS163357

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